Buran-Energia History Timline 1982-1985

SOURCE:  Modified from: Wade's Encyclopedia Astonomica site.

This is a concise history of the Buran-Energia project - From its humble begins in the 1970's through to the epic launch in 1987, and finally through to the program's suspension in 1993. So, lets get started!

Project Timeline:

 

31 January 1982

 Management shake-up at Yuzhnoye - Continued development problems with the Energia booster rockets led to a management shake-up at the Yuzhnoye design bureau.

 04 June 1982

Cosmos 1374 Spacecraft Launched - BOR-4. Mass: 1000 kg. Launch Site:  Kapustin Yar. A Subscale Spiral spaceplane. After 1.25 revolutions of the earth, deorbited and recovered by Soviet naval forces in the Indian Ocean at 17 degrees South, 98 degrees East, 560 km south of Cocos Islands. Made a 600 km cross-range maneuver during reentry. The recovery was filmed by an Australian Orion reconnaissance aircraft, revealing the configuration
to the West for the first time.

31 December 1982

 3M-T Buran transport aircraft delivered - The 3M-T transport aircraft was completed and began delivery of central block propellant tanks and structural elements for construction of a realistic mock-up of the Energia booster. The 3M-T was a heavily modified M-4 bomber, and was limited to 50 tonnes loads carried on the top of the fuselage.

31 December 1982

Energia mock-up completed - The 4M Energia launch vehicle high fidelity mock-up was completed at Baikonur.

 16 March 1983

Cosmos 1445 - Mass: 1000 kg. Launch Site: Kapustin Yar . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 65MP: Subscale Spiral spaceplane. After 1.25 revolutions of the earth, deorbited and recovered by Soviet naval forces in the Indian Ocean, 556 km south of the Cocos Islands .
 

15 May 1983

Energia full-scale loads tests - The 4M Energia mock-up was used for dynamic/vertical/load tests in May-October 1983. The 4M was then returned to the shop for fitting of complete functional propellant systems.

04 July 1983

BOR-5 Flight 1   Launch Site - Kapustin Yar . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 65MP - Suborbital test of 1/8 scale model of Buran. Typical trajectory: ascent to 120 km; pitch down to drive model in atmosphere at 45 degree at Mach 18.5. None were reflown but at least 4 were recovered.

15 August 1983

OK-KS Buran systems test stand completed - The OK-KS Buran systems test stand was built at NPO Energia to conduct tests not possible on other stands. These included electrical layout, pneumo-hydraulic tests in abort conditions, EMI tests, failure mode response, telemetry, interface with the launch vehicle, software systems test. The test series was completed in March 1984. 77% of the tests of the OK were automated, compared with only 5% for the Soyuz-TM.

27 December 1983

Cosmos 1517 - Mass: 1000 kg - Launch Site: Kapustin Yar - Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 65MP - In a new mission profile, braked out of orbit over the South Atlantic and was recovered in the Black Sea after one orbit of the Earth.

31 December 1983

OK-ML-1 orbiter mock-up arrives at Baikonur - The OK-ML-1 mock-up arrived atop the 3M-T transport aircraft. OK-ML-1 was originally to have been used in the first launch of the Energia, by the end of 1983. But the program was years behind schedule, and in the end the OK-ML-1 was used for handling and pad compatibility tests.

06 June 1984

BOR-5 Flight 2 - Mass: 1400 kg. Launch Site: Kapustin Yar - Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 65MP - Suborbital test of 1/8 scale model of Buran. Typical trajectory: ascent to 120 km; pitch down to drive model in atmosphere at 45 degree at Mach 18.5. None were reflown but at least 4 were recovered.

31 August 1984

OK-ML-2 orbiter mock-up arrives at Baikonur - The OK-ML-2 (former OK-MT) functional mock-up was used for systems integration tests, and was to have been expended on the second test flight.

19 December 1984

Cosmos 1614 - Mass: 1000 kg. Launch Site: Kapustin Yar . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 65MP - Last flight of the subscale Spiral spaceplane. Recovered December 19, 1984 5:26 GMT, in the Black Sea after one orbit of the Earth.

29 December 1984

Buran Analog BST-02 taxi test 1 - Launch Site: Baikonur . More details Summary: Maximum speed 45 kph. Time 5 minutes.
 

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